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Fridrihs CANDERS

Fridrihs CANDERS

Born: August 23, 1887, Riga, Latvia

Died: March 28, 1933, Kislovodsk, Russia

Interests in inventing:

Theory and design of air vehicles:

  • Unification of rocket and airplane to be use for the suppression of gravitation field and atmosphere of the Earth or any other planet
  • Projects of interplanetary ship-aeroplane and its engine design. Application to the Patent Office of Russia (08.07.24.) “Interplanetary ship-aeroplane of Fr.Canders” . Under the guidance of Fr.Canders one of the first soviet rockets GIRD-X with liquid fuel (liquid oxygen+petrol) engine was manufactured (it started on 25.11.33). Other engine projects where solid fuel would be used as well as liquid fuel
  • Utilization of sun light pressure to increase the speed of airship in the interplanetary space
  • First liquid fuel jet-engines of USSR OR-1 and OR-2
  • Winged rocket
  • Sun cage


  • Calculations of interplanetary flight trajectory, especially precisely – for the flight to Mars

Life securing systems in the cosmic flight and astrobotanics:

  • Spacecraft protection against the impact of external medium (radiation and meteorites)
  • First cosmic green-house (“aviation lightness orangery” ) (by utilizing three times lighter charcoals instead of soil)

Main invention:

Theoretician of cosmic flights, constructor and founder of USSR jet-engines

About the inventions

More about the inventor (in Latvian)